Narrative In Art

A Cluster of Interesting Thinking

Guillermo del Toro

leave a comment »

Nicole Chang

Critical Reasoning

Rufi Cole

21 April 2011

Guillermo del Toro vs. Nicole and the Critics

For most people, the gap between reality and fantasy is quite obvious.  Reality is bound by physics, science, and evidence.  Something isn’t real unless people can see it or have seen proof of it existing.  That leaves tales of faeries and demons to fiction and children’s fables.  Even with our strictly established reality, humans still have the capability to fantasize and create things that are a representation of something that has been fabricated in the mind.  Art, literature, and movies are all peoples’ representations of something that was once only an idea.  Some question the “fakeness” of what our society calls fantasy, and try to bring it into reality.   Perhaps there really isn’t a separation between the two and that they are actually both existing in the same “real world”.

A certain movie director uses this idea in a few of his movies, and beautifully creates films in which the characters and their worlds, actions and events are portrayed in a mysterious and questionable ways.  Though it is left unanswered which idea he believes, I think that the ultimate moral behind his films is to be able to question the realness of fantasy, and the illusion of reality.

Del Toro was born in Guadalajara, Mexico on October 9, 1964, and was raised in a very strict Catholic household.  When he was about eight years old, he became very interested in filmmaking.  He had always been a fan of horror films by famous directors like, Alfred Hitchcock, George A. Romero, James Whale and Mario Bava.  While trying to make his own short films, del Toro learned makeup and film effects from Dick Smith (The Exorcist), and studied screenwriting and how to make film reels.  At age 21, he directed and executive produced his first film, Doña Herlinda and Her Son (1986).   During this time, he spent almost 10 years as a makeup supervisor, and developed his own company in the early 1980’s called Necropia.  He was also a director and producer for several Mexican television programs and taught film workshops at local schools. Del Toro’s success peaked when he released a vampire horror film, Cronos (1993).  After winning a few awards for Cronos, del Toro makes his first Hollywood debut, Mimic (1997).  Unfortunately, his first Hollywood experience was too stressful and demanding, and he returned to Mexico displeased with the Hollywood production methods (thebiographychannel.co.uk).  Shortly after he returned, he developed his own company, the Tequila Gang, to try and produce movies his own way (imbd.com)

In del Toro’s fascination with illusion and special effects, as well as in his rejection of contemporary Hollywood’s slavish affection for naturalism, we can see del Toro’s dedication to the unreal, the outlandish, the mysterious and bizarre. Nowhere is this more evident than in Pan’s Labyrinth, where within the movie, he uses one character to take the viewer through the dimensions of reality and its opposite, to create a narrative that questions the core of what we think is real.

The construction of Pan’s Labyrinth’s complex narrative was based off a twisted fantasy version of del Toro’s previous Spanish Civil War movie, The Devil’s Backbone.  At first glance, Pan’s Labyrinth seems like a little girl getting sucked into a fantasy world, like Alice falling down the rabbit hole.  But the depth and significance of each scene and event in the movie has a deeper meaning to the story and ultimately the main character, Ofelia.  Throughout her adventure of trying to complete these tasks, Ofelia must deal with the harshness and reality of mortality, the truth of war, the pain of her mother’s growing sickness, and the discovering of her stepfather’s heartlessness and his battle against the rebels.

Pan’s Labyrinth starts off with an introduction of a legend of a kingdom in the underworld, which is home to a princess who is captivated by the world above and wanders off into the realm of the mortals.  The princess is said to have died, and her kingdom is still waiting for her return to the underworld.  This leads us to think that this fantasy world is real, as the introduction transitions into a young girl, Ofelia, traveling in the Spanish countryside with her sick pregnant mother.  When they arrive at the Spanish fascist military camp to meet Captain Vidal, Ofelia’s new stepfather, it is immediately apparent that her mother’s lover is cold, strict, and powerful.

On the night she arrives, Ofelia wanders into a strange maze-like labyrinth,

where she meets a mysterious creature that tells the confused Ofelia that she is the princess of the underworld, and that her family awaits her return.  But before she can be accepted back as the princess, she must complete a series of three tasks to prove that she is indeed the princess.

The creature, a faun (half goat, half man) becomes her guide to completing these tasks, and helping her through the mercilessness and cruelty of reality.  At first it seems that the faun (Pan) is menacing, with a demon like appearance, but he soon becomes an oasis for Ofelia from the discomfort of her new home.  Throughout the movie, del Toro uses the labyrinth as a representation of Ofelia going through and overcoming the twists, turns and dead ends of reality, with the faun to guide her through a series of tasks that mirror things she must defeat in her “real” life.

The first task is to climb inside a dying fig tree and retrieve a key from the giant toad that lives inside the tree, sucking its life and killing it.  Del Toro has each creature represent an event or human character in Ofelia’s life at her stepfather’s military camp.  The toad in the Moribund Tree symbolizes Ofelia’s baby stepbrother in her mother’s womb.  The baby is slowly making her mother more and more sick, and will eventually have to sacrifice herself giving birth, which will be another symbol for Ofelia later on.

The tree inside is damp, moist and it has all the nutrients and food that the toad needs to survive, but ultimately killing its host. The actual destruction of the toad is like Ofelia having a secret grudge on her unborn brother, wanting him gone from her mother so that she can have all the attention, and her mother will be healthy again.  It is almost as if, despite Ofelia’s innocence, she is blaming the baby for bringing them to this awful place, and for causing their family so much grief.  In other words, del Toro makes the “unreal” world to reflect “reality”, though of course both are unreal.  This allows the viewer to see that both the unreal and real dimensions may actually be the same world, and that at the same time as the ending of the film, the viewer is left guessing which is real: the “real” or the “unreal.”

With the key in hand, Ofelia moves onto the second task.  The faun tells her to use the key to unlock a small hole in the lair of a terrible creature that devours children.  He strictly instructs her that she must not eat anything on the table no matter how delicious it may look.  She descends into the lair to find a large table topped luxuriously with all kinds of food.  At the end of the table sits a still, flabby, pale looking man.  As she gets closer she discovers he has no eyes on his head, but two eyeballs on the plate before him.

Behind her, she finds the small lockers, and using the key, retrieves the dagger that the faun sent her for.  As she leaves, she accidentally awakens the pale man.  He slowly puts the eyes into his eye sockets in his hands, and looks around.  He staggers toward her, and she runs for the door, and he chases her.  She manages to escape with the dagger, but at the loss of two of the faun’s fairies.  The pale man at the dinner table seems to represent Captain Vidal who earlier sat at the head of the table with important figures, and looks down on everybody, daring anyone to go against him.  His hatred towards innocence like Ofelia and even at times her mother is shown in the pale man who eats children.  The pale man is also reflective of Captain Vidal because he doesn’t care at all to listen to Ofelia and her fantasies, and can only believe in what he knows is real and can see and prove.  This is shown in the pale man’s eyes being on his hands.  He can only see what he can “feel”.

The faun is very displeased with Ofelia disobeying him in the lair of the pale man, and gets angry at her, telling her that she can never return to the underworld.  Shortly after this, Ofelia’s mother goes into labor and dies giving birth.  Ofelia’s mother’s death foreshadows the last and final task.  The faun reappears as Ofelia is wrought with grief and sorrow, and allows her one last chance at returning to her kingdom.  In her distress, she agrees to whatever the faun says, eager to redeem her self.  He instructs her to bring her baby brother to the center of the labyrinth.  She sneaks into Captain Vidal’s study and takes the baby to the faun.  Captain Vidal chases her and kills her to get the baby back.  As she is shot, she falls at the edge of the gate, and her blood drips onto the stones of the gate.  The third task is completed, and she returns to the underworld reunited with her family.

At the end of the film, after she returns to the underworld, it shows her back in the labyrinth in a pool of blood, smiling, and finally dying. The viewer is left to question whether Ofelia’s adventures were all in her head, an escape from the world she hated and tried to deny, or if they were real, and she happily returned to her kingdom after her death in the mortal world.  The entire movie is a battle between polar opposites occurring in one small being.  Good against evil, earth and hell, innocence and corruption, and imagination versus reality.

Some critics suspect that Ofelia’s fantasies were actually real, and only caused doubt because no one else would believe enough to see what she saw.  To Ofelia, each one of the creatures and tasks were symbols to help her cope with similar obstacles in the real world. Throughout the movie Ofelia’s imagination and harsh reality gradually fuse until at the very end, she dies and her “mind” is completely submerged into her fantasy.

However, others may argue that it is quite obvious that Pan, the faun is not real, because as Ofelia is refusing to give Pan her baby brother, Captain Vidal sees her in the clearing talking to herself.  The fairy tales that Ofelia loved consumed her mind and she began to mix them as an escape for herself, as young people have a hard time coping with the truths and harshness of reality.  Perhaps both are true, where she begins to invent the fantasies, and they slowly become real, a world created by a traumatized young girl.  That would make all of it fictional, and there is actually no reality within the movie because the movie itself is a digital creation within the bounds of our “reality”.

This particular film, as with many of del Toro’s other films, he uses heavy realism with a large dose of fantasy in a way that is hard to decipher for the characters in the movie as well as the audience what is real and what is fantasy.  As shown in del Toro’s use of symbols, each creature and event has significance to something parallel in Ofelia’s “real” world.  From this, it seems del Toro didn’t want the viewer to be clear on whether or not Ofelia was making up an imaginary world, or if she was really involved in a real fantasy.  This way, by leaving it open to interpretation, viewers might question their own borders between reality and fantasy.

Despite the countless theories that critics and analysts may have, there is no doubt that we, as the audience, find thrill in the fantasy and unreality of this and many other movies.  Some of the world-renown and ancient philosophers discuss the relationship between real and unreal. Schopenhauer, a German philosopher of the nineteenth century, explains his theory that the world we are living in is only a fantasized copy of the real version, and that to cope with this, we should muffle our desires so we don’t fall deeper into the illusion (philosophytalk.org).  He believes that it is human nature to be violent and competitively survive against others.  Also that we make ourselves believe things can exist, and then make them exist in our minds (plato.standford.edu).  Ofelia’s actions are a good example of Schopenhauer’s description of human nature.  She tries to cope with the violence around and within her by creating her own world and forcing herself to believe that it is real.

Within the movie, Ofelia doesn’t question whether the magical things happening around her are real, but del Toro created the “fantasy” in such a way that it seems typical of folklore and from our upbringing, we assume that Ofelia is delusional and is making her imagination fuse with reality.  Some viewers think the whole movie is entirely fictional in that the events Ofelia was involved with could have really happened to her in the film because the film itself is fiction.  No matter the assumption that the viewer has in the beginning, by the end of the film, it is obvious that there is no real answer.  The viewer is left to question not only the film, but also their own ideas of reality.  The beauty of del Toro’s ability to narrate this way and interact with the viewer so that they actually the very idea of real and fake is demonstrated perfectly in this movie.  Hopefully, we will never know for sure which is true, because we would cease to be fascinated by the idea of fantasy and imagination.

“It’s not about monsters being real—it’s about us allowing them to exist in our imagination and our soul. If you allow the magic, it’s not necessarily that you’re going to transform water into wine, but you’ll certainly transform the boring expectations of everyday life into a spiritual one. I believe in the spiritual, but I am not a religious guy. It’s a strange conceit, but it’s true. If you allow the magical to live in you, [the world is] a better place.”

—Guillermo del Toro—

Works Cited

“Guillermo del Toro Biography”. The Biography Channel. The History Channel, N.d.          Web. 30 April 2011. <http://www.thebiographychannel.co.uk/biographies/guillermo-del-toro.html>.

User: DonaMajicShow. “Psycho-critical Analysis of “Pan’s Labyrinth”: Myth, Psychology, Perceptual Realism, Eyes & Traumatic Despondency”. Tumblr, 25 September 2010. N.p. Web. 5 March 2011. <http://donamajicshow.tumblr.com/post/196479492/psycho-critical-analysis-of-pans-labyrinth-myth>.

“Biography for Guillermo del Toro”. The Internet Movie Database. N.p. N.d. Web. 25 April 2011. <http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0868219/bio>.

“The Esoteric Interpretation of ‘Pan’s Labyrinth’”. Pakalert Press. Pakalert, 25 September 2010. N.P. Web. 5 March 2011. <http://www.pakalertpress.com/2010/09/25/the-esoteric-  interpretation-of-%E2%80%9Cpan%E2%80%99s-labyrinth%E2%80%9D/>.

Wicks, Robert. “Arthur Schopenhauer”. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford, 12 May 2003. Web. 22 April 2011. <http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/schopenhauer/>.

Yalom, Irv. “Schopenhauer”. Philosophy Talk. Philosophy Talk, 4 May 2005. Web. 2 May 2011. <http://www.philosophytalk.org/pastShows/Schopenhauer.htm>.

Website ruins my nicely MLA’d essay!!

I’ll keep my presentation up just in case you want to see pretty visuals. They’re not really essential for my essay.

Guillermo del Toro-

Del Toro and..a dog

Bio:

Del Toro was born in Guadalajara, Mexico on October 9, 1964, and was raised in a very strict Catholic household.  When he was about eight years old, he became very interested in filmmaking.  He had always been a fan of horror films by famous directors like, Alfred Hitchcock, George A. Romero, James Whale and Mario Bava.  While trying to make his own short films, del Toro learned makeup and film effects from Dick Smith (The Exorcist), and studied screenwriting and how to make film reels.  At age 21, he directed and executive produced his first film, Doña Herlinda and Her Son (1986).   During this time, he spent almost 10 years as a makeup supervisor, and developed his own company in the early 1980’s called Necropia.  He was also a director and producer for several Mexican television programs and taught film workshops at local schools.

Del Toro’s success peaked when he released a vampire horror film, Cronos (1993).  After winning a few awards for Cronos, del Toro makes his first Hollywood debut, Mimic (1997).  Unfortunately, his first Hollywood experience was too stressful and demanding, and he returned to Mexico displeased with the Hollywood production methods.  Shortly after he returned, he developed his own company, the Tequila Gang, to try and produce movies his own way.  After a big success with a ghost story set during the end of the Spanish Civil War called, The Devil’s Backbone (2001), del Toro became even better known, and Hollywood once again sought him for his artistic creativity, and film innovation.

On the set of Blade II

He began to produce movies like Hellboy and Blade 2 (2002), but then once again took a break from Hollywood to start on Pan’s Labyrinth.

Movie: Pan’s Labyrinth (2006)

The success of the dark and fantastical Pan’s Labyrinth (2006) was really the leading cause of del Toro’s major popularity in the movie industry, earning him more than enough Oscar Nominations.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lbx-4TDHzVA

The construction of Pan’s Labyrinth’s complex narrative was based off a twisted fantasy version of del Toro’s previous Spanish Civil War movie, The Devil’s Backbone.  At first glance, Pan’s Labyrinth seems like a little girl getting sucked into a fantasy world, like Alice falling down the rabbit hole.  But the depth and significance of each scene and event in the movie has a deeper meaning to the story and ultimately the main character, Ofelia.

Ofelia’s story is laid out in the typical, beginning to end sequence, but it is the significance of each character that brings out the magic in del Toro’s ability to narrate in a linear yet mysterious way.  Throughout her adventure of trying to complete these tasks, Ofelia must deal with the harshness and reality of mortality, the truth of war, the pain of her mother’s growing sickness, and the discovering of her stepfather’s heartlessness and his battle against the rebels.

Pan’s Labyrinth starts off with an introduction of a legend of a kingdom in the underworld, which is home to a princess who is captivated by the world above and wanders off into the realm of the mortals.  The princess is said to have died, and her kingdom is still waiting for her return to the underworld.  This leads us to think that this fantasy world is real, as the introduction transitions into a young girl, Ofelia, traveling in the Spanish countryside with her sick pregnant mother.  When they arrive at the Spanish fascist military camp to meet Captain Vidal, Ofelia’s new stepfather, it is immediately apparent that her mother’s lover is cold, strict, and powerful.

Captain Vidal

On the night she arrives, Ofelia wanders into a strange maze-like labyrinth,

Ofelia at the entrance of the labyrinth

where she meets a mysterious creature that tells the confused Ofelia that she is the princess of the underworld, and that her family awaits her return.  But before she can be accepted back as the princess, she must complete a series of three tasks to prove that she is indeed the princess.

Pan the faun

The creature, a faun (half goat, half man) becomes her guide to completing these tasks, and helping her through the mercilessness and cruelty of reality.  At first it seems that the faun (Pan) is menacing, with a demon like appearance, but he soon becomes an oasis for Ofelia from the discomfort of her new home.  Del Toro uses the labyrinth as a representation of Ofelia going through and overcoming the twists, turns and dead ends of reality, with the faun to guide her through a series of tasks that mirror things she must defeat in her life at home.

The Toad in the Moribund Tree

Pan gives Ofelia three tasks that she needs to complete before the next full moon in order to prove that she still belongs in the underworld.  The first task is to climb inside a dying fig tree and retrieve a key from the giant toad that lives inside the tree, sucking its life and killing it.

Del Toro has each creature represent an event or human character in Ofelia’s life at her stepfather’s military camp.  The toad in the Moribund Tree symbolizes Ofelia’s baby stepbrother in her mother’s womb.  The baby is slowly making her mother more and more sick, and will eventually have to sacrifice herself giving birth, which will be another symbol for Ofelia later on.

The Moribund Tree

The tree inside is damp, moist and it has all the nutrients and food that the toad needs to survive, but is in the end killing its host. The Moribund Tree itself looks similar to a uterus.

The actual destruction of the toad is like Ofelia having a secret grudge on her unborn brother, wanting him gone from her mother so that she can have all the attention, and her mother will be healthy again.  It’s almost as if despite Ofelia’s innocence is blaming the baby for bringing them to this awful place, and for causing their family so much grief.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0UWLTwuA32o&feature=related

With the key in hand, Ofelia moves onto the second task.  The faun tells her to use the key to unlock a small hole in the lair of a terrible creature that devours children.  He strictly instructs her that she must not eat anything on the table no matter how delicious it may look.  She descends into the lair to find a large table topped luxuriously with all kinds of food.  At the end of the table sits a still, flabby, pale looking man.  As she gets closer she discovers he has no eyes on his head, but two eyeballs on the plate before him.

The Pale Man at the dinner table

Behind her, she finds the small lockers, and using the key, retrieves the dagger that the faun sent her for.  As she’s leaving, she can’t resist a bushel of large, plump grapes, a rarity during the Spanish Civil War, and despite the pestering advice of her fairy companions, eats a few of them.  Behind her, the pale man is awoken.  He slowly puts the eyes into his eye sockets in his hands, and looks around.  He staggers toward her, and she runs for the door, and he chases her.  She manages to escape with the dagger, but at the loss of two of the faun’s fairies.

The pale man at the dinner table seems to represent Captain Vidal who earlier sat at the head of the table with important figures, and looks down on everybody, daring anyone to go against him.  His hatred towards innocence like Ofelia and even at times her mother is shown in the pale man who eats children.  The pale man is also reflective of Captain Vidal because he doesn’t care at all to listen to Ofelia and her fantasies, and can only believe in what he knows is real and can see and prove.  This is shown in the pale man’s eyes being on his hands.  He can only see what he can “feel”.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n9YD2PFF31E

The faun is very displeased with Ofelia disobeying him in the lair of the pale man, and gets angry at her, telling her that she can never return to the underworld.  Shortly after this, Ofelia’s mother goes into labor and dies giving birth.  Ofelia’s mother’s death foreshadows the last and final task.  The faun reappears as Ofelia is wrought with grief and sorrow, and allows her one last chance at returning to her kingdom.  In her distress, she agrees to whatever the faun says, eager to redeem herself.  He instructs her to bring her baby brother to the center of the labyrinth.  She accepts, and sneaks into Captain Vidal’s study, where the baby is kept.  She takes the baby, but is caught at the last second.  Captain Vidal chases Ofelia into the labyrinth, where she finds the faun.  The faun asks her to bring the baby to him, and pulls out the dagger from the pale man.  She is confused, and refuses to give the baby to him, even for only a prick.  He tells her that they need the blood of an innocent to open the gates to the underworld, yet she still refuses.  As she is fighting the faun, Captain Vidal appears, and takes the baby from her and kills her.  She falls at the edge of the gate, and her blood drips onto the stones of the gate.

Ofelia returns to the underworld

As she loses consciousness, she finds herself clad in beautiful clothes in a large golden room standing before three tall thrones, where her mother and father sit.  The third task, self-sacrifice, is completed, and she returns to the underworld reunited with her family.

Del Toro leaves this part of the movie open to interpretation.  At the end of the film, after she returns to the underworld, it shows her back in the labyrinth in a pool of blood, smiling, and finally dying.  Del Toro wants the viewer to question whether Ofelia’s adventures were all in her head, an escape from the world she hated and tried to deny, or if they were real, and she happily returned to her kingdom after her death in the mortal world.  The entire movie is a battle between polar opposites occurring in one small being.  Good against evil, earth and hell, innocence and corruption, and imagination versus reality.  The movie is beautifully composed, a mental adventure of a girl trying to cope with reality by making her own escape, but then getting lost in all of it and ultimately having to sacrifice herself for something that may not even be real.

Ofelia’s story is told mostly chronologically, but the very beginning of the movie starts off with Ofelia’s death in reverse.  The blood drips back into her body, as if this has happened before, and it is just the legend replaying itself.

Ofelia's death

The movie is told strictly from Ofelia’s point of view, which is why everything seems so cruel and how she is so victimized in a mess of a world.  At the end, reality is confusing for us as well because we saw everything from Ofelia’s perspective, and del Toro wanted to make it unclear if even she knew the truth or if she really did just fall into a rabbit hole.

Aristotle VS Guillermo del Toro:

We are all students of Aristotle.  We have all adopted his ideas so much that they are now practically common sense.  In almost all the movies made since people started to realize that Aristotle really knew what he was talking about, there has been a relatively universal structure to them.  When Aristotle published his ideas, there were many suggestions and guidelines to making a solid story or play or poems that would make sense and make people interested or keep them entertained.  At that time, Aristotle was primarily writing about stories that were tragedies or dramas.  But within all of his revolutionary tactics, there is probably one main idea that has become the basis of the way we think.

A story must have a beginning, a middle and an end.  The beginning should be where there is nothing to show before it, and the middle should be after the beginning and before the end, and the end should be the conclusion, where the story stops.  Of course within this story, there has to be a main character, and he or she must be portrayed in a specific way, which we all read in the excerpt, and depending on the type of story, the character must go through events accordingly.  Now all of this is obvious to us because we have entertained ourselves this way for hundreds of years.

On the subject of specific entertainers like Guillermo del Toro, their way of going about Aristotle’s methods always vary, but tend to keep the base ideas like parts of a story and the main character’s mental or physical journeys.  Del Toro specifically usually depicts his stories in a linear and chronological way.  His delivery seems straightforward, but the beauty of his projects is within the character and his or her adventure.

In Guillermo del Toro’s Pan’s Labyrinth, he abides to Aristotle quite loyally, having a beginning, middle and end, and a character whom the audience is attached to.  Ofelia is our heroine, and to Aristotle’s pleasure, del Toro makes her brave, noble, and we pity her many times throughout the movie.  Aristotle also writes about a good tragedy, and that our fear and pity are stimulated the most when friends or family do the harm rather than just enemies or strangers.  Pan’s Labyrinth is no doubt an Aristole-ian tragedy, where Ofelia is victimized by adults who don’t understand her, and resorts to throwing herself into her own imagination.  Her stepfather is cruel and heartless, while her mother is kind, but doesn’t understand her feelings.  We pity her, and sympathize with her loneliness, we feel scared when she is, and we cry when she dies.  Del Toro does a really nice job of following Aristotle’s Poetics.  He would be proud :’)There are many wonderful movies that mix and match Aristotle’s guidelines, but it is still the foundation of most of our entertainment, and I don’t think I’d want it any other way.  (Maybe I’m being brainwashed?)

“It’s not about monsters being real—it’s about us allowing them to exist in our imagination and our soul. If you allow the magic, it’s not necessarily that you’re going to transform water into wine, but you’ll certainly transform the boring expectations of everyday life into a spiritual one. I believe in the spiritual, but I am not a religious guy. It’s a strange conceit, but it’s true. If you allow the magical to live in you, [the world is] a better place.”

—Guillermo del Toro—

I’m so tired…good luck everyone else 🙂 hopefully yours will be less boring than mine! Thanks for listening!!

Written by narrativeinart

January 16, 2011 at 6:06 pm

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: